Wait A Minute: What About Online Violence

Wait A Minute - What about online violence?

On the occasion of Safer Internet Day, the first episode of “Wait A Minute – لحظة شوي” video series addresses the growing phenomenon of online violence against women and girls […]

Voices from Libya – Enforced Disappearance

Together We build It

This analytical piece by Together We Build It (معا نبنيها) provides an overview of the phenomenon of enforced disappearances from a legal perspective, focusing specifically on inadequate legal responses to […]

A WILPF Guide to Killer Robots

Killer Robots Guide Cover

This is a guide about autonomous weapons, also known as killer robots. It provides information on the current status of related technologies as well as international efforts by governments, activists, […]


Bullying is any abusive practice or behaviour directed by an individual or group of individuals towards another individual or group. Bullying can be considered a form of harassment that is more frequent and systematic. It aims not only to violate the receiving party, but also to belittle them. Bullying is characterised by being targeted at a person or group of people, while harassment need not be targeted.


Harassment/Taharrush is a group of unwanted abusive practices that are threatening to the recipient by their very nature. Unlike bullying, harassment need not be targeted. It may take place directly or indirectly, so that it creates an atmosphere of distress, heaviness, and insecurity.


Assault is any actual or attempted aggressive act that deliberately violates or threatens the physical space of an individual or group. It is often believed that assault is limited to direct physical violations only, but as a concept it also includes indirect infringement on personal space.


Exploitation occurs when a person or group of people uses their power, status, or positionality for personal benefit through the use of force, duress, violence, coercion, deceit, or trickery that causes direct or indirect harm to another person or group of people, or to public interest.

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